A study by the Lancet Infectious Diseases Group has found that, as a result of gender-based discrimination, more than 40 per cent of men who are being treated for the disease have suffered a loss of male genitalia.
This has led to an estimated 1.2 million men and more than 1.5 million women suffering a loss.
The report published in the Lancet Psychiatry journal has identified gender-specific discrimination in male infertility treatment.
The researchers said the lack of recognition of the condition among doctors and medical practitioners in the medical community, combined with a general belief that it is the result of “a genetic predisposition” is to blame.
The findings are based on a survey of more than 5,000 men who had undergone surgery or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or had undergone bilateral genital reconstruction or surgery on the penis or vulva to correct penile or vulval urethra (VV) problems.
The survey was carried out between May and November 2015.
About 10 per cent had received hormone replacement, and a further 2 per cent were receiving hormone replacement and surgical reconstruction.
The prevalence of gender bias The survey also found that doctors are much more likely to recommend male-specific hormone therapy than female-specific treatments, and doctors were much more willing to prescribe hormone therapy to men than to women.
This is especially true in rural areas, where men tend to be more educated and therefore more likely have a more favourable opinion of medical treatment.
“This can be seen in the prevalence of the use of female hormones in the treatment of male-to-male and female-to -female sexual dysfunction and male-related mental health problems,” said study co-author Dr Michael Schoettle, of the University of Bristol.
In a previous study, the researchers also found high rates of male circumcision in the UK. “
As a result, most doctors prescribe male hormones for these problems, and when they do, the proportion of the patient’s overall care that is male-only is significantly higher than the proportion that is female-only.”
In a previous study, the researchers also found high rates of male circumcision in the UK.
Dr Schoett said the finding is particularly worrying because, in most parts of the world, the incidence of penile cancer has been declining, and there is growing awareness that male circumcision is a preventive measure for penises and vulvas.
He said there is no evidence that the prevalence rates of female-related health problems, such androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIHS), have decreased over the last 20 years, despite the availability of new therapies for men with penile, vulval and penile-vaginal cancers.
“We need to look at how this issue has changed over the past 20 years,” he said.
“In the UK, for example, it’s clear that there is a reduction in the rate of peniles diagnosed with AIHS, but also in the proportion who have surgery to repair or reconstruct penile prostheses.”
In another study, Dr Schooett and his colleagues have also found evidence of male gender bias in the diagnosis of penises. “
We think that it has a major impact on the male-female transition, which includes the possibility of increased risk of sexual dysfunction.”
In another study, Dr Schooett and his colleagues have also found evidence of male gender bias in the diagnosis of penises.
In this case, the doctors surveyed more than 400 doctors and patients, asking them how many patients with penises had been referred for penicillin and antibiotic treatment and whether this had resulted in an increase in penile malignancies.
The doctors found that only 15 per cent said this had happened, while almost half of the doctors said that it had not.
The majority of the patients had penile infections and a higher proportion of them had symptoms of penicillium infection.
“The number of cases is low, but it is concerning that this is the case,” Dr Schowe said.
Dr David Waddington, who heads the Men’s Health and Sexuality Research and Education Centre at the University Hospital Leeds, said the prevalence rate of male penile health problems in the general population was relatively low, which meant that there were a number of men being prescribed medications that were not likely to benefit them.
“It is the first time that we have found a pattern of gender biases,” he told the BBC.
“These are not only the results of male bias but also of medical bias in treating male patients.”
“In addition to having a low prevalence of penicular cancer, male patients with genital dysfunction are also at higher risk of experiencing other sexual and/or mental health disorders.”
We need more evidence to see if it is a cause and effect relationship between the two and if so, to see what the effects are and what can be done about it.
“Mr Waddeson said