The latest scientific study of male circumcision in India indicates that the procedure may not increase male fertility, but could in fact lower it.
The findings, from the World Health Organization, come at a time when the practice has gained traction in parts of the country, where it is the preferred method of male circumcisions.
But even as the World Bank and the World Economic Forum are pushing for the change, there is no consensus among medical professionals on the issue.
“Male circumcision may not be as good as it appears,” says Dr. Ramesh Gupta, a paediatrician and medical officer of the World Medical Association.
“This has a big impact on the female reproductive system.
It’s a big concern and the problem is not just the male.
It affects the entire male population, too.”
The report by Dr. Gupta and his team examined a total of 3,071 male and female Indian newborns born in 2016-17.
It looked at semen analysis, which measures the concentration of sperm in a man’s semen, and examined whether the male infant’s penis was damaged by the procedure.
The researchers found that circumcision had no significant effect on the sperm concentration in the semen of the newborn.
The effect on sperm concentration was smaller in boys who were circumcised at birth, when their testicles are still in the birth canal.
“The foreskin is not very sensitive to semen and it has to be carefully washed with warm water,” says Gupta.
“It’s also very difficult to remove from the penis in order to remove the foreskin.
There are no tests for male circumcision and therefore, the only way to measure the effects is through semen analysis.”
The researchers also found that the male circumcision did not increase the likelihood of having a son by any significant degree.
There was a positive correlation between the sperm count in the newborn’s testes and his father’s age.
“What we found is that if there was an adverse effect of male genital cutting on male fertility in newborns, it was more pronounced in boys,” says senior author Dr. K.S. Ramakrishnan, a researcher at the National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) in New Delhi.
The study was published online on June 14 in the journal Human Reproduction.
The NIMS scientists believe that the results from this study indicate that circumcision has a positive effect on male semen quality, which is known to affect sperm count and the likelihood that a baby will have a male child.
“We don’t have any data to confirm this finding,” Ramakanth said.
“But there is evidence from our studies that circumcision increases the chances of a male having a male baby.”
There is no doubt that circumcision is a controversial practice.
In the past, there have been controversies over whether male circumcision is safe and effective, and whether it has any negative effects on the health of the baby.
According to a 2011 U.S.-based study, boys who had male circumcision were more likely to develop urinary tract infections, genital ulcers, penile cancer and male infertility.
The practice is now banned in the U.K. and Australia, but still prevalent in parts.
The United States has some of the strictest laws in the world, but it is not uncommon for doctors to circumcise babies without a medical warrant, or for parents to insist that their children have the procedure done.
In India, however, there are few medical practitioners who are trained to perform the procedure and, for the most part, the practice is seen as routine.
“In India, it’s seen as a family rite and a sacred ritual,” says Ramakant.
“And I think that’s why people do it.
But in countries like Australia and the U., where it’s a non-medical thing, we still do it.”
In India in particular, the procedure has a strong religious component, according to Dr. Sanjay Jain, an obstetrician and maternal health specialist at the University of Western Australia.
“There are many religions in India,” he says.
“Even among Muslims, there’s a strong sense of ritual.
I think what’s important is that we try and keep tradition alive.”
The study found that circumcised men had a greater chance of developing male infertility in later life, which means that the risk of male infertility increases in adulthood.
Dr. Jain says the circumcision may also have an effect on fertility in men who have had vasectomies or other operations, which he believes may lead to a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.
“That’s because there’s increased risk of prostate cancer in the men who are circumcised,” he said.
The World Health Organisation says that men are most likely to experience symptoms of prostate disease if they have a history of urinary tract infection or urinary incontinence, which can lead to the need for more than one operation to treat urinary tract symptoms.
“I think there is a lot of misunderstanding